Conservation, Land Rights and Livelihoods in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania

Executive Summary

For millennia, pastoralists have shared landscapes with wildlife throughout Africa (Pilgram, SiiriƤinen et al. 1990; Homewood and Rodgers 1991; Little, Dyson-Hudson et al. 1999). Throughout the 20th century, this co-existence has been in decline as conservation policy excluded people and livestock from protected areas, and demographic growth and expanding agriculture excluded wildlife use (Ellis and Swift 1988; Pagiola, Kellenberg et al. 1998; Homewood, Lambin et al. 2001; Serneels and Lambin 2001). Concurrently, many pastoral systems across the globe, including those of Maasai pastoralists in Tanzania, are believed to be in decline and under unprecedented pressure to diversify livestock based economies.

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